1589 – Henry III of France stabbed by assassin. King Henry III of France was stabbed this day in 1589 by Jacques Clément, a Jacobin friar, and died the next day after acknowledging his Bourbon ally, Henry of Navarre (Henry IV), a Huguenot, as his successor.
1944 – The Warsaw Uprising began as the Polish underground tried to oust the German army and seize control of the city before it was occupied by the advancing Soviet army; after running out of supplies, the Poles were forced to surrender in October.
On 31 July 1971
Lunar Roving Vehicle first used on the Moon. On this day in 1971, Apollo 15 astronauts James B. Irwin and David Scott first used the four-wheeled battery-powered Lunar Roving Vehicle to extensively explore the Moon‘s surface, in particular the Hadley-Apennine site.